Research Portal

July 1, 2022

Increased Walking’s Additive and No Substitution Effect on Total Physical Activity

Kang, Bumjoon; Moudon, Anne V.; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Saelens, Brian E. (2018). Increased Walking’s Additive and No Substitution Effect on Total Physical Activity. Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 50(3), 468 – 475.

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Purpose We assessed the associations between a change in time spent walking and a change in total physical activity (PA) time within an urban living adult sample to test for additive or substitution effects. Methods Participants living in the greater Seattle area were assessed in 2008-2009 and again 1-2 yr later (2010-2011). At each time point, they wore accelerometers and GPS units and recorded trips and locations in a travel diary for seven consecutive days. These data streams were combined to derive a more objective estimate of walking and total PA. Participants also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to provide self-reported estimates of walking and total PA. Regression analyses assessed the associations between within-participant changes in objective and self-reported walking and total PA. Results Data came from 437 participants. On average, a 1-min increase in total walking was associated with an increase in total PA of 1 min, measured by objective data, and 1.2-min, measured by self-reported data. A similar additive effect was consistently found with utilitarian, transportation, or job-related walking, measured by both objective and self-reported data. For recreational walking, the effect of change was mixed between objective and self-reported results. Conclusion Both objective and self-reported data confirmed an additive effect of utilitarian and total walking on PA.


Accelerometers; Global Positioning System; Metropolitan Areas; Questionnaires; Recreation; Self-evaluation; Time; Walking; Physical Activity; Accelerometer; Gps; Ipaq; Longitudinal Study; Self-reported Measures; Light-rail Construction; Built Environment; Accelerometer Data; Older-adults; Urban Form; Transit Use; Travel; Neighborhood; Interventions; Calibration