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July 1, 2022

Walking Objectively Measured: Classifying Accelerometer Data with GPS and Travel Diaries

Kang, Bumjoon; Moudon, Anne V.; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Reichley, Lucas; Saelens, Brian E. (2013). Walking Objectively Measured: Classifying Accelerometer Data with GPS and Travel Diaries. Medicine & Science In Sports & Exercise, 45(7), 1419 – 1428.

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Purpose: This study developed and tested an algorithm to classify accelerometer data as walking or nonwalking using either GPS or travel diary data within a large sample of adults under free-living conditions. Methods: Participants wore an accelerometer and a GPS unit and concurrently completed a travel diary for seven consecutive days. Physical activity (PA) bouts were identified using accelerometry count sequences. PA bouts were then classified as walking or nonwalking based on a decision-tree algorithm consisting of seven classification scenarios. Algorithm reliability was examined relative to two independent analysts' classification of a 100-bout verification sample. The algorithm was then applied to the entire set of PA bouts. Results: The 706 participants' (mean age = 51 yr, 62% female, 80% non-Hispanic white, 70% college graduate or higher) yielded 4702 person-days of data and had a total of 13,971 PA bouts. The algorithm showed a mean agreement of 95% with the independent analysts. It classified PA into 8170 walking bouts (58.5 %) and 5337 nonwalking bouts (38.2%); 464 bouts (3.3%) were not classified for lack of GPS and diary data. Nearly 70% of the walking bouts and 68% of the nonwalking bouts were classified using only the objective accelerometer and GPS data. Travel diary data helped classify 30% of all bouts with no GPS data. The mean + SD duration of PA bouts classified as walking was 15.2 + 12.9 min. On average, participants had 1.7 walking bouts and 25.4 total walking minutes per day. Conclusions: GPS and travel diary information can be helpful in classifying most accelerometer-derived PA bouts into walking or nonwalking behavior.


Walking; Algorithms; Decision Trees; Geographic Information Systems; Research Funding; Travel; Accelerometry; Diary (literary Form); Descriptive Statistics; Algorithm; Classification; Physical Activity; Walk Trip; Global Positioning Systems; Physical-activity; Environment; Behaviors; Validity; Location